A hard, compact building material formed when a mixture of cement, sand, gravel, and water dries. Commonly known as concrete.
Most commonly refers to ground asphalt which is added back into a virgin asphalt mixture at the mixing plant. This and related procedures using RAP are becoming common for economical and environmental reasons. Recycled pavements may have different performance characteristics than conventional mixtures. Larger contracts today should specify if the use of RAP materials is encouraged, allowed, or not allowed.
Cracks in an asphalt overlay pavement caused by cracks in the existing pavement "reflecting" up through the overlay. Specialized techniques and materials such a multi-membrane paving fabrics help reduce this problem.
Enlargement of pavement cracks using a specialized machine. This provides a uniform width reservoir for the sealant. Proper choice of bit size will result in the proper depth to width ratio (depth=width). Properly used this procedure greatly increases the effectiveness and durability of crack sealing.