Slope. The degree to which a paved surface is angled to aid in the drainage of water.

Fog Seal
A process of applying a highly diluted asphalt emulsion in a fine spray (fog) to a roadway surface. Restores blackness and seals hairline cracks, may prevent or slow oxidation. Not generally used for parking facilities due to tracking.

Full-Depth Asphalt Pavement
The process of constructing an asphalt pavement structure using asphalt products for all components. The base material and surface courses are all made up of appropriately specified grades of hot-mix asphalt in contrast to conventional paving using crushed stone materials etc. There are numerous benefits to this method of construction.

Geotextile is the technical name for fabric like materials used in the paving process. Geotextiles are manufactured for specific uses and performance characteristics. Some uses include stabilization of base material to prevent migration into sub-grades, retarding of reflective cracking in asphalt overlays, and serving as a moisture barrier between pavement layers.

Gilsonite, or North American Asphaltum is a natural, resinous hydrocarbon found in the Uintah Basin in northeastern Utah. Gilsonite in mass is a shiny, black substance similar in appearance to the mineral obsidian. It is brittle and can be easily crushed into a dark brown powder. Some companies manufacture pavement sealers with Gilsonite as a base material. A drawback to these sealers is the necessity of solvents, usually mineral spirits (paint thinner) to dissolve the Gilsonite. Improperly or over-applied these solvents can damage asphalt pavements.

Slope. The degree to which a paved surface is angled to aid in the drainage of water. The act of leveling or sloping the subgrade or base layer before paving.

Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete. Abbreviation of the proper name for what is commonly referred to as “asphalt”, “hot-mix”, “blacktop” etc. This term should always be used in specifying asphalt pavement work to avoid any confusion or misinterpretation of the material desired. H.M.A.C. is produced in many different grades from coarse base mixes to specialized mixes for surfacing and repair. In most instances the grades are specified according to state department of transportation guidelines.

Heat Lance
Device using a combination of propane and compressed air ignited in a specially designed chamber to produce an extremely hot high-velocity stream of air. Used to remove debris and vegetation from pavement cracks prior to sealing. It also warms and dries the crack to better accept the sealant. When properly used federal research has determined this to be a most effective preparation method (SHRP H-106 Data). Although more expensive initially the combination of routing and heat lance preparation can provide 10 times the life of conventional crack sealing methods.