Abbreviation for Cold In Place Recycling. A general term for processes using grinding machines to recycle pavement into base material for new paving. Often using additives such as emulsions or foamed asphalt for stabilization.

Chip Seal
A process of applying a layer of hot asphalt oil over existing pavement the immediately covering with a thin layer of small crushed aggregate. The aggregate is then “rolled in” with a pneumatic roller. Is generally not used on parking facilities as the oil may “bleed” and cause tracking in hot weather.

A by-product of coke ovens in the steel production industry. Refined coal-tar has been used as a base for asphalt pavement sealers since 1938. It has become more expensive in recent years due to the shift in steel production to foreign countries.

Compressing a given volume of material into a lesser volume. A compacted subgrade and base is essential.

The common name for “Portland Cement Concrete Pavement”. A hard, compact buildingmaterial formed when a mixture of cement, sand, gravel, and water dries.

Course, Asphalt Base
A foundation course consisting of mineral aggregate, bound together with asphalt material.

Course, Asphalt Surface
The top course of an asphalt pavement, sometimes called asphalt wearing course.

A separation of the asphalt layer due to excessive loads (weights), heat, or age.

Deviation of a pavement from profile under weight loads.

Density ( thickness or compactness)
Technically, density refers to the weight of a material at a specific volume (unit weight). A specific density of asphalt is achieved my mechanically compacting (rolling) the hot material after it has been placed by the paving equipment. To most consumers of asphalt, it means the compaction of the material versus a theoretical value that is usually derived in a laboratory.

Drag Box Spreaders
Drag Boxes (so called because they are pulled behind a dump truck) are sometimes used to spread asphalt. While it is not impossible to do a reasonable job with one of these, the discrepancies in the resulting finished surface usually result in an inferior job. These type devices, often home-made, are usually used by so-called “gypsy” or “fly-by-night” contractors. These devices should not be confused with manufactured tow-behind pavers which have floating screeds, which when used with skill produce an asphalt mat comparable to a regular self-propelled paver.

A system of drains and pipes for carrying away surface water. An asphalt surface is sloped to maximize the removal of surface water for vehicular safety.

Mechanically produced combination of ingredients which do not normally mix. For example, asphalt emulsions are made by a procedure which mechanically mills the warm asphalt into minute globules, dispersing them in water, and adding a small amount of an emulsifying agent